Annotated Bibliography Essay

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The U.S education system has played a prominent role in the widespread internalized racism that exists within the Latino community and continues to do so today.

Annotated Bibliography

Gonzalez, Juan Carlos. “The Ordinary-ness of Institutional Racism.” American Educational History Journal, vol. 34 Issue 2, p331-342. Ebscohost.

This source focuses on how institutional racism has had a negative impact on the Latina/o educational experience as far back as 1930. It then delves into defining the Critical Race Theory and using it to analyze how educational institutions in the U.S. have discriminated against Latina/os for decades. Gonzalez, the author of this work currently works at the Educational Leadership at the California State University in Fresno. I find this source reliable because the author gives clear explanations of how institutional racism is practiced using court cases that involve people validating segregation due to Mexican-American’s lack of “Americanness” and their “linguistic deficiencies.”. This source does not reflect itself as biased based on how the author mentions that data is incomplete if it is not completely analyzed. I will use this source to base my argument on how an abundance of Latinos have lost a language, in this case Spanish due to the assumption of anyone speaking it is “Mexican” or more importantly “brown.”
Hipolito-Delgado, Carlos P. “Internalized Racism, Perceived Racism, and Ethnic Identity: Exploring their Relationship in Latina/o Undergraduates.” Journal of College Counseling, July 2016, vol. 19 Issue 2, p98-109. Gale Power Search.

This article examined how internalized racism and perceived racism have an inverse correlation with mental and physical health. It also explored factors that may contribute to internalized racism such as U.S. born generational status and Spanish language fluency. Lastly, they presented their findings of a study that hypothesized that perceived racism would be inversely related to ethnic identity in U.S.-born Latina/o undergraduates. The author of this source is Carlos P. Hipolito-Delgado, an Associate Professor at UCLA. I consider this source to be reliable due to the classes Delgado teaches, Counseling Issues and Ethics and Multicultural/Diversity Issues in Counseling Individuals/Family. I do not consider this source to be biased due to how they carried out their study. Their participants were from various Latina/o university student organizations and were invited throughout electronic emailing lists. They consisted of 258 women, 113 men, one transgender individual, and one who refused to name their gender. The lack of restrictions creates the idea that they are not choosing certain individuals to produce results in their favor. I will mainly be using this source to bring up the fact that internalized racism and perceived racism should be taken more seriously due to the stress it causes which hinders Latina/o ability to function normally in everyday life such as pursuing an education.

Hunter, Margaret. “Colorism in the Classroom: How Skin Tone Stratifies African Americans and Latina/o Students.” Theory into Practice, vol. 55 Issue 1, 2016, p54-61. Ebscohost.

This article focuses on theorizing the mechanisms of color-based discrimination in the classroom due to the lack of investigations conducted on the matter. Two key terms discussed were “racial capital” and the “halo effect.” They were defined and were thoroughly explained in how they are used against darker skinned Latino/as and African Americans regarding their educational opportunities. This article was written by Margaret Hunter, a professor of sociology at Mills College in Oakland California. This appears to be a reliable source due to Hunter’s multiple conference presentations concerning colorism and similar topics which date all the way back to 1996 to present. Hunter’s numerous memberships in professional associations also help to instill a sense of trustworthiness. This source does not seem to be biased because it does not seem to have any malicious intent and uses an informative tone. I will use this article to explain how racial capital and the halo effect perpetuate the feeling of inferiority in darker skinned Latinos and a sense of superiority in lighter skinned Latinos.

Irizarry, Jason G. What Latino Students Want from School.” Educational Leadership, vol. 72, p66-71. Gale Power Search.

This article gives a voice to Latino students on wanting to be given more rigorous courses and be taught through their cultural identities. They state that they simply began to consider themselves and Latinos to be “dumb” because only white students were put into “challenging classes.” Jason G. Irizarry is an associate professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and faculty associate in El Instituto. I deem this source as accurate by his work focusing on pointing out issues involving educator preparation. This source is not bias because he interviewed students in the school at random. I will use this source to show that when Latino students see a lack of support for students that are Latino and a substantial amount of support for non-Latino white students they begin to feel that their own ethnicity is the issue.

Monzo, Lilia D. “They Don’t Know Anything!: Latinx Immigrant Students Appropriating the Oppressor’s Voice.” Anthropology and Education Quarterly, June 2016, p148-166. Ebscohost.

Internalized racism that exists within the Latinx community over “ethnic identity” is mentioned in this source. The Eurocentric curriculum that erases people of color, English-only instruction, and increasingly policed schools are said to prepare Latinx students for low-skilled labor. This article goes further into discussing how internalized racism develops in Latinx immigrant youths or Latinos with immigrant parents due to their feelings that their parents are “too Mexican” or “too Guatemalan” in their rules and actions. This was written by Lilia D. Monzo, an assistant professor at Chapman University. The trustworthiness of this source can be found through her list of references. This source is not biased because it is not viewing one generation of Latinx as more valid than another like some tend to. I will use this to show that internalized oppression can happen because of generational differences and how the public education systems nurtures feelings of resentment towards parents from their children due to their lack of understanding of the English language.

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